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Excluding Crimea, Ukraine has a population of about 42.5 million, making it the 32nd most populous country in the world.The territory of modern Ukraine has been inhabited since 32,000 BC.Ukraine is a unitary republic under a semi-presidential system with separate powers: legislative, executive and judicial branches. Taking into account reserves and paramilitary personnel, 77.8 percent of whom are Ukrainians "by ethnicity", followed by a sizeable minority of Russians (17.3 percent) as well as Georgians, Romanians/Moldovans, Belarusians, Crimean Tatars, Bulgarians and Hungarians.Ukrainian is the official language and its alphabet is Cyrillic.
These events formed the background for the annexation of Crimea by Russia in March 2014, and the War in Donbass in April 2014.
By 4,500 BC, the Neolithic Cucuteni-Trypillian Culture flourished in a wide area that included parts of modern Ukraine including Trypillia and the entire Dnieper-Dniester region.
During the Iron Age, the land was inhabited by Cimmerians, Scythians, and Sarmatians.
Kievan Rus' included the central, western and northern part of modern Ukraine, Belarus, far eastern strip of Poland and the western part of present-day Russia.
According to the Primary Chronicle the Rus' elite initially consisted of Varangians from Scandinavia.